Monday Quiz 13 – Conmen & Drunk Lorry Drivers

September 17, 2007 at 12:01 am 27 comments

On this week last year (September 17 to September 23, 2006):

  • A thirty-year-old conman from Roscommon, who was wanted on both sides of the Irish border for various crimes including car theft by impersonating a police officer, was in the news for what reason?
  • Who anounced that he would not be inviting his friends Bill Clinton or Nelson Mandela to his wedding in Fermoy, County Cork?
  • What Irish personality was accused in Court of ‘ranting and raving’ at a drunk lorry driver that he had ‘made shit’ of his driveway with a waste skip?
  • The OECD ranked eighteen mostly European countries on how good they were at giving parental leave to workers. Where did Ireland rank?
  • A report showed that, unsurprisingly, Irish people are more overweight now than in 1948. But how many calories per day did we consume in 1948 and 2006?

Click here for answers: >>>

Answers

  • Frank Shanley rang up RTE’s Liveline show to tell Joe Duffy that he wanted to give himself up. As another of his cons, he pretended to be a film producer and hired a camera crew to film him enjoying himself in nightclubs.
  • Michael Flatley.
  • Michael McDowell, then Minister for Justice. The lorry driver was fined €800 and banned from driving for a year.
  • Ireland was last. Sweden was first.
  • We consumed just over 3,000 calories a day in 1948, and just over 2,000 calories a day in 2006. However, in 1948, we did more manual work, and we got more calories from carbohydrates and less from fats and proteins.
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Entry filed under: Fun, Ireland, Monday Quiz.

Marc Bolan Anniversary – Glam Rock NostalgiaFest Prank Letter to Irish President Mary McAleese

27 Comments Add your own

  • 1. m.c  |  April 24, 2008 at 9:53 pm

    frankie shanley was a great friend of mine up until last year.we were mates 4 about 3 to 4years and just now im finding out all about him.i have to say im totally and utterly shocked.i typed in his name too see cud i contact him too see how he was keeping and i cant believe what appeared on the screen.wow

    Reply
  • 2. micheal carr  |  May 28, 2008 at 10:11 am

    i have to say frankie worked for us djing for a while and he was a nice guy,its obvious he needs help,this crap about him is being blown out of proportion,its crazy,

    Reply
  • 3. john mahon  |  June 24, 2008 at 12:52 pm

    frankie shanley? fair play to him,its hilarious what he done and not really criminal as its been made out to be,there’s a book in the making here…..

    Reply
  • 4. gerry carroll  |  July 21, 2008 at 7:26 pm

    i know that m.c guy and that comment was a scam!!! ignore it,sad bastard putting up a comment like that,and well done to frankie!!!!

    Reply
  • 5. Tara kiely  |  August 16, 2008 at 2:53 pm

    Frankie shanley is one of the best djs around and nicest guys who went through a bad patch 2 years ago because of a wanker called joe duffy,every car he was accused of taking he returned days later but the papers were not saying that,and that m.c who left a comment is pathetic enough to jump on the bandwagon and leave no contact details for himself! Sad!! Frankie will be djing for me tonite in my club and will continue to do so! We love him over here!

    Club zanzibar.
    Ipsos.
    Corfu
    greece

    Reply
  • 6. Ross  |  February 6, 2009 at 11:44 am

    Lets get a few things in perspective here about this guy. he is a fraud full stop he sold i pods on buy and sell never sent them he stole computers from a shop in limerick .he stole mobiles phones and credit from shops all over ireland pretending to be working for various service maintenance companies .Dont any Fucker on this blog tell me that this baby faced thieving cheat is innocent and joe duffy is a radio show host and when that cheat gets caught he runs the oohhh im so sorry it was a mistake line etc

    Reply
  • 7. malcolm  |  February 24, 2009 at 2:18 pm

    hey ross!!
    arnt you the stupid muppet,frank used to be a friend of mine and has paid for his little mistaked and moved on with his life,your obviously a sad little snotty nosed fucker with no life who thinks he know it all!!

    go get a life you sad muppet and get your facts right,
    he Never sold ipods on buy and sell or computers from limerick!!!!
    Like i said your probably a sad fucker of a dj trying to dis hime!!!

    Ross is a muppet,and use your real name ya spanner…

    Reply
  • 8. kev  |  February 24, 2009 at 2:27 pm

    hi i know ross,

    he’s a doggy twat from kells,

    he works for jacksons ford garage in cavan and if you want to get screwed then go there,hes the service manager i think..
    he used to be a dj so there you go!!!!!!!
    lying bastard.

    Reply
  • 9. kev  |  February 24, 2009 at 2:28 pm

    hi i know that ross fella,

    he’s a doggy twat from kells,

    he works for jacksons ford garage in cavan and if you want to get screwed then go there,ross is the service manager i think..
    hes a prick so there you go!!!!!!!
    lying bastard.

    Reply
  • 10. tony  |  February 24, 2009 at 2:31 pm

    frankie is a nice lad,used to know him in kerry and i think that its very unfair bringing up this mans past as thats what it is,some people should let be.
    its very easy to put up a comment that you dont and cant back up..dont beleive that “ross” person..
    he sounds like hes got an axe to grind though..

    Reply
  • 11. brian k  |  February 24, 2009 at 2:41 pm

    seriously who cares??
    3 years ago and your all still rambling on..ha ha..

    Reply
  • 12. gerald  |  February 24, 2009 at 4:06 pm

    yeah ross brennan is from crossakeel in kells i think,
    hes 27ish and a known shit stirrer..

    Reply
  • 13. pat o  |  February 24, 2009 at 4:37 pm

    Yes i agree!!
    frank shanley has gone through hard times in the last few years (by his own doings) but in fairness has turned full circle,hey worked on a station i used to work and i got to know him through that,there is always an element of “over the top” when it comes to media and this site proves that,
    it took one comment to create a bad twist to this page..
    no doubt what that Ross printed was in fact not based in fact but “gossip” and “hype”
    and thats what is called’…..media!!
    freedom of speech is a right but do we really need it??
    getting back to the point in hand frankie shanley is a very talented dj who loves music and who slipped up and has bounced back..and is it not right that he said he was sorry and messed up!!!
    Shame on Ross!!
    Kells beware!
    the bandwagon has officially left!!!!

    Reply
  • 14. james  |  February 24, 2009 at 4:40 pm

    who does “ross” think he is..

    he calls us fuckers!!

    back to the trailer park with ross brennan and i wont be using jacksons ford again..mr.brennan actually had his car damaged last weekend in kells so that will show you how people feel bout him.
    SCUM BAG BRENNAN

    Reply
  • 15. mary  |  February 25, 2009 at 11:05 am

    Ross brennan is bullshiting with his comment,i grew up in the same town as frankie and he NEVER has been brought to court over any of those incidents brennan referred to..
    Now let me put something into perspective about frankie.
    Whats in the past is in the past and no one was out money over his crimes and he was giving all those cars back even though no car dealers were saying that at the time and he was not stealing computers or phone credit because iv been watching the whole thing from the start.
    ross brennan has an agenda and its obvious,frankie is a great dj and the nicest person you would meet and everyone who knows him says that even gardai,hes done the crime and its over with.
    And why should he say hes sorry!
    if he didnt say sorry youd be complaining that he didnt,move on will you you sad pathetic man!!
    Anyone know ross brennans details??
    put them up here if you do..
    NAME AND SHAME

    Reply
  • 16. Daniel r  |  March 8, 2009 at 6:38 pm

    Ross brennan is from crossakeel and deals in dodgy stuff! Il put his details up if you want them.

    Reply
  • 17. paddy  |  March 10, 2009 at 2:43 pm

    no point just let it be dan but well keep watching this space..

    Reply
  • 18. merrr hggdgd  |  January 11, 2011 at 6:03 pm

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  • 19. merrr hrgdgd  |  January 11, 2011 at 6:06 pm

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  • 20. meer hggdgd  |  January 11, 2011 at 6:12 pm

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  • 21. meer hggdgd  |  January 11, 2011 at 6:20 pm

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  • 22. dw wdqw  |  February 7, 2011 at 2:27 pm

    Reply
  • 23. vir man  |  February 8, 2011 at 1:09 am

    film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalys Reply
  • 24. vir man  |  February 8, 2011 at 1:10 am

    of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed f Reply
  • 25. vir man  |  February 8, 2011 at 1:12 am

    BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus
    does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high
    memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s
    not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server
    chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a
    Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches
    EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that
    is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you
    insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus
    loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if
    you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself
    back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be
    destroyed.

    The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet
    common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person
    here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in
    Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte
    Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one
    minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image
    of a certain part of the Male anatomy. 😎 I think the reason this
    virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically
    for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of
    these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless
    THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this –
    that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case
    it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the
    CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the
    DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the
    boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around
    counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To
    get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button
    (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are
    rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and
    it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse
    button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen
    Blue).

    THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior
    Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed
    to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another
    virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than
    that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a
    hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase
    it. Ya, right.

    THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus
    alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea
    is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them.

    THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE
    SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same.

    THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block
    virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the
    boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the
    FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at
    that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get
    and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his
    VIRUSX utility.

    Anyway….the saga continues……

    Reply
  • 26. vir man  |  February 8, 2011 at 1:13 am

    HOME CONTENTS THAT’S ME Monday Quiz 13 – Conmen & Drunk Lorry Drivers September 17, 2007 title=””> title=””> title=””> Reply 19. merrr hrgdgd | January 11, 2011 at 6:06 pm title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> Reply 20. meer hggdgd | January 11, 2011 at 6:12 pm title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> Reply 21. meer hggdgd | January 11, 2011 at 6:20 pm title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> title=””> Reply 22. dw wdqw | February 7, 2011 at 2:27 pm Reply 23. vir man | February 8, 2011 at 1:09 am Your comment is awaiting moderation. film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “motion pictures”. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson’s early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century, but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Around the turn of the 20th century, films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors, theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. Eventually, musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with complete film scores being composed for major productions. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D.W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). However in the 1920s, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau, and Fritz Lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith, along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them “talking pictures”, or talkies. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called “natural” color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce “natural color” films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white,[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. By the end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave, Indian New Wave, Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Formalist film theory, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film’s artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory, structuralist film theory, feminist film theory and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film’s vocabulary and its link to a form of life. Language Film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled “How to Read a Film”. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, “[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.” Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor’s left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profile speaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage, extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing, as in a ballet or opera; e.g., as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film, Rumble Fish. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In general, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Film critics working for newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Despite this, critics have an important impact on films, especially those of certain genres. Mass marketed action, horror, and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic’s overall judgment of a film. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. For prestige films such as most dramas, the influence of reviews is extremely important. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. The impact of a reviewer on a given film’s box office performance is a matter of debate. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. However, the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed, as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers, and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work, and what effect they have on people. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television, their articles are published in scholarly journals, or sometimes in up-market magazines. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented. Upon seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in their native France, the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. In each country, they would normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product commercially. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. Other pictures soon followed, and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films, while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Already by 1917, Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood, the Indian film industry’s Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios, recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Profit is a key force in the industry, due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking; many films have large cost overruns, a notorious example being Kevin Costner’s Waterworld. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. The Academy Awards (also known as “the Oscars”) are the most prominent film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year to films, ostensibly based on their artistic merits. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Associated fields Further information: Film history, Film criticism, Film theory, Product placement, and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film, such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Sub-industries can spin off from film, such as popcorn makers, and toys. Sub- industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film, such as product placement in advertising. Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse, is arguably the first “motion picture,” though it was not called by this name.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel, and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these “moving picture shows” onto a screen for an entire audience. These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as “mot Reply
  • 27. vir man  |  February 8, 2011 at 1:17 am

    BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY disk inserted, and will write itself to ANY bootable disk that is inserted! This one can spread like wildfire – every disk you insert into your external drive during a session with this Virus loaded will result in all those disks being infected. Ouch. Also, if you Install a disk while this virus is going, it will just copy itself back to the disk – which is why it has to be wiped from memory to be destroyed. The REVENGE VIRUS: ———————- This virus is not yet common in North America (I think Steve Tibbett is the first person here to have a copy of it), but it is apparently making the rounds in Sweden and Germany.What this virus does, is everything that the Byte Bandit virus does,PLUS, after infecting a disk, it will wait one minute after every reboot, and change your mouse pointer into an image of a certain part of the Male anatomy. I think the reason this virus is called the “Revenge” virus is because it looks specifically for the Byte Bandit and for the SCA Virus. If it finds either of these, it Rigs THAT virus so that it will CRASH the machine unless THIS virus is loaded first. Note that I might be wrong about this – that’s the way it looks from the disassembly,- but be warned,in case it pops up later or something. He stays in RAM via changing the CoolCapture vector to point to his own code. He then intercepts the DoIO() call and watches for any attempts to rewrite or to read the boot block and acts accordingly.He also has an interrupt around counting VBlanks until it’s time to bring up his sicko pointer. To get this virus out of memory is Simple – Hold down the Joystick button (Plug a joystick into port 2, and hold down the button while you are rebooting), and the screen will briefly turn RED during the boot, and it’s out of memory. (If you hold down Joystick button AND mouse button, it will half-remove himself from RAM and turn the screen Blue). THE BYTE WARRIOR VIRUS: ————————- The Byte Warrior Virus is a lot like the Byte Bandit virus, except it is not designed to hurt anything – it will start an “Alarm” sound if it sees another virus (or at least I think it does – it hasn’t for me), but other than that, it will write itself to any disk inserted. There is also a hidden message in it, asking us to spread it around and not to erase it. Ya, right. THE NORTH STAR AntiVIRUS: ————————– This virus alerts you to the presence of other viruses.I think this sort of idea is stupid because it can do just as much damage as the rest of them. THE OBELISK SOFTWARE CREW VIRUS: THE PENTAGON CIRCLE VIRUS: THE SYSTEMZ VIRUS: ———————————- More of the same. THE IRQ VIRUS: ————————- The FIRST non boot-block virus! This one is murder! Since it does not attach itself to the boot block it is not a simple think to find. This baby attacks the FIRST executable file in your startup-sequence or,if it can’t get at that file, it will attack the DIR command in your C directory! Get and read the fine writeup of this virus by S.Tibbett included with his VIRUSX utility. Anyway….the saga continues……BYTE BANDIT VIRUS: ——————— What the Byte Bandit virus does is once it’s in memory, it copies itself to just above the high memory pointer on the first hunk of RAM it can find (Which means it’s not always in the same place), wedges itself into the Interrupt Server chain, into the Trackdisk.device’s vectors,and creates itself a Resident structure so it can hang around after reboot. It watches EVERY dis Reply

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A blog by Michael Nugent

Welcome to my blog about living in the maddest country on earth. Please feel free to leave a comment.

I also write Bionic Bohs, a blog about following Bohemians football club in the 1970s.

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Bionic Bohs

As mentioned above, if you like Irish football and/or cultural nostalgia, I also write Bionic Bohs, a blog about following Bohs in the 1970s.

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